Frequently Asked Questions
Product InformationWhat is KIMAX®?
Is KIMAX® glass the same as PYREX® glass?
KIMAX® is the trademark identifying all glassware including tubing and rod, made of KIMAX borosilicate glasses, produced and sold by Kimble Chase. When used alone, KIMAX signifies that the glass is KG-33: when the KIMAX is followed by a suffix, the glass used is one of the other Kimble borosilicate glasses, e.g. KIMAX-51 means that the glass is N-51A and KIMAX-35 means that the glass is KG-35.
What is KIMAX® KG-33 Glass?
Yes, they both have similar physical properties.
What is KIMAX® N-51A Glass?
KG-33 is a KIMAX® Brand borosilicate glass with a low coefficient of expansion and a very high resistance to chemical attack. It meets the requirements for Type 1 Class A glass of ASTM E438, "Glass in Laboratory Apparatus". The alkali content is low and it is made without elements of the calcium magnesium and zinc group of heavy metals. The combined total of arsenic and antimony oxides is less than 0.005%. It is also known by its brand name KIMAX®.
What is KIMAX® KG-35 Glass?
N-51A is a KIMAX® Brand borosilicate glass possessing the best all-around chemical durability of available commercial glasses. Due to a comparatively low coefficient of expansion, N-51A also possesses good resistance to heat shock. N-51A meets the requirements for Type 1 Class B glass of ASTM E438.
What are the differences between KG-33 and N-51A glass?
KG-35 is a KIMAX® Brand borosilicate glass that has a chemical durability comparable to that of N-51A and is used primarily for small and medium-sized machine blown containers. It meets all requirements for Type 1 Class B glass of ASTM E438, but has a lower softening point.
What are the differences between RAY-SORB® and Amber Glasses?
KG-33 has a lower coefficient of expansion than N-51A. KG-33 is needed for apparatus that require heavy walls to minimize mechanical breakage when heat is applied. Both KG-33 and N-51A are highly resistant to chemical attack. Most laboratory glassware is made from KG-33 with the exception of laboratory vials and bottles. Vials and bottles are most often manufactured from N-51A.
What is the difference between a "partial immersion" and a "total immersion" thermometer?
KIMAX® Amber 203 glass is amber borosilicate glass developed for light sensitive pharmaceutical products and has a chemical durability comparable to N-51A.
RAY-SORB® is the trademark identifying red-colored KIMAX® glassware for use when contents must be protected from light of wavelengths below the 500mµ (millimicron) range. Transmission characteristics: 0 percent at 300mµ, 1 percent at 400mµ and 4 percent at 500mµ.
What are the differences between Class A and Class B glassware?
A partial immersion thermometer is designed with a scale calibrated to indicate the true temperature when the thermometer is immersed to a specified depth. The portion that should be immersed is indicated on the back of each thermometer.
A total immersion thermometer is designed with a scale calibrated to indicate the true temperature when the bulb and the portion of the mercury column, to just below the temperature being read, is exposed to the temperature to be measured.
When do I use the blow-out method on pipets?
Volumetric glassware that is permanently marked Class "A" is guaranteed to comply with volumetric tolerances prescribed in ASTM E694, and latest revisions. It is also supplied with a serialized certificate of precision.
Volumetric glassware that is permanently marked Class "B" has a tolerance that is twice as large as Class "A".
What is "serialized and certified" glassware?
Only serological type pipets require that the last drops be "blown out" to obtain the total rated capacity. They are calibrated to deliver to the tip and are permanently marked with two bands near the top end or a wide opaque ring near the top end. Volumetric (Transfer) or Measuring (Mohr) pipets are calibrated for after touch-off method.
The proper method of delivery is as follows:
Draw the liquid above the top graduation using bulb or equivalent device.
- Use forefinger (not thumb) for level control.
- Wipe any drops off outside surface.
- Zero meniscus at the top graduation.
- Dispense in vertical position with unrestricted outflow.
- Touch off last remaining drop to surface of receiver vessel two seconds after free-flow stops.
What is the difference between "To Contain" and "To Deliver"?
Glassware characterized as "serialized and certified" is permanently marked with its own serial number and supplied with a Certificate of Graduation Accuracy attesting to its conformance with ASTM Standards.
What causes smoke rings in finished culture tubes?
All calibrated volumetric glassware requires that the user be informed whether the ware is "To Contain" or "To Deliver" and is permanently marked "TC" or "TD". When the graduation line denotes the volume contained in the calibrated vessel, it is marked TC. The ware is marked TD when the graduation line indicates the volume delivered from the vessel. TD calibrated vessels are different from the TC calibrated vessels because of the drainage holdback error. For example, when the amount of water required to wet the inner surface of the vessel in contact with the water is added to the TC volume. The TD vessel then delivers the same volume as the contained volume in a TC vessel. The International Standards Organization designation for "To Contain" is "IN" and the "To Deliver" is "EX".
How do I separate ground joints that have become frozen?
Smoke rings, sometimes called boron haze, may occur when gases are trapped inside the tube during finishing. Sometimes, the smoky appearance is caused by condensation since borosilicate glass is thermal shocked with water.
How do I clean fritted ware?
For glass-to-glass joints, immerse the joints in a glass container of freshly poured carbonated liquid. The liquid will start penetrating between the joints. Let them soak in the solution for about 15 minutes. After removing the joints, rinse with water and then wipe. Slowly heat the two joints by rotating them over a Bunsen burner flame for about 20 seconds. Wear heat resistant gloves to avoid being burned. Make sure that at least 50% of the joints are wet before heating. After removing from the flame, slowly twist the joints apart. If this does not work repeat the procedure. Never force the two joints apart when using this method.
For PTFE-to-glass connections, place the piece of glassware containing the PTFE part (stopcock, stopper, etc.) into an ice bath for about 15-20 minutes. After removing the glassware from the ice bath the PTFE portion should have contracted enough to allow the pieces to be separated.
Is sodium hydroxide okay to use with burets?
New fritted filters and fritted ware should be washed by suction with hot hydrochloric acid and then rinsed with water before use. This treatment will remove loose particles of foreign matter such as dust. It is advisable to clean fritted ware as soon as possible after use. Also, many precipitates can be removed from the fritted ware by rinsing from the reverse side with water under pressure not to exceed 15lbs. /sq. in. Drawing water through the reverse side with a vacuum pump is also effective.
What techniques are recommended for removing air bubbles that are left in the tip of a buret after filling?
Yes, as long as the buret is cleaned immediately after each use. It is also better to use a PTFE stopcock when working with sodium hydroxide. If the buret is not properly handled when working with certain solutions, you will have leakage problems.
How are laboratory consumables sterilized?
Here are two techniques that are often successful:
- Rapidly open and close the stopcock while tapping the stopcock barrel with your finger.
- Deflate a standard pipet bulb and insert it over the buret tip; simultaneously open the stopcock and release pressure on the bulb.
What is involved in sterile processing by heat?
Most single use devices are terminally sterilized by ethylene oxide gas, gamma radiation, or electron beam radiation. The sterilization process must be present on the pre-sterilized product. By means of the cGMP medical device regulations, FDA has established some of the requirements for an acceptable sterility assurance program. More specific guidelines for validation of the sterilization processes are developed and published by AAMI in conjunction with ISO.
When auditors come to your facility to discuss sterilization requirements, they usually want to see two things: 1) the original validation package that determined what type of sterilization is best and what dose is appropriate (for radiation), and 2) review of periodic dose audits for the same product. An initial validation study usually takes 6 to 8 weeks, and is done on the largest container size in a series of the same material. That qualifies all sizes of that material to accept the same dose.
For gamma radiation, which we use for most of our products, there are several AAMI/ISO methods available to sterilize a medical device. All of these methods use product bioburden enumeration and a bioburden organism resistance test, which is referred to as the verification dose resistance experiment. The most appropriate methodology is selected based on the projected production schedule and size.
- AAMI/ISO 11137 Method 1 For large and frequent production batches
- AAMI/ISO 13409 For small production batches
- AAMI/ISO 15844 For large but infrequent production batches
- AAMI/ISO VDmax a new validation method which I use which is cheaper, and requires less samples
Initial validation costs upwards of $5,000, and periodic quarterly dose audits (or however often you make a production run) cost around $1,500. A dose audit is a sterility test of samples that have been irradiated at a defined kGy level determined as part of an AAMI dose validation study. Sterilization and reporting is usually around $1,000. These costs have to be included in your pricing, unless you have already validated the container/bottle. Kimble Chase only offers two I-Chem sizes as sterilized 400 series level products, since we had to have the containers validated, using the largest size, and we have to do a quarterly dose audit in accordance with AAMI/ISO guidelines. That becomes part of the pricing structure. We only run those quarterly, so we do a dose audit each time we do a production run.
If you have a defined kGy level for your containers, then someone must have commissioned an initial validation study, which you should have a copy of at EPSP. If you sell more than once, however, then you need to do quarterly dose audits, based on that initial validation report.
What are some of the potential effects of pipette sterilization?
Sterilization is defined as the destruction or removal (by filtration) of all microorganisms and their spores. Sterilization is usually achieved via heat or radiation.
Sterilization by heat may be achieved by autoclaving, dry heat in hot air ovens, or boiling. Autoclaves can terminally sterilize products that can withstand a temperature of 121ºC for 30 minutes. There are two types of autoclaves: pressure cooker type and gravity displacement models with automatic air and condensate discharge.
Steam sterilization is a process of killing microorganisms through the application of moist heat (saturated steam) under pressure. Heat destroys the cells essential structures, including the cytoplasmic membrane. The rate of at which bacterial cells are destroyed depends on the temperature and time of heat exposure.
What is heparinization and why is it used for blood collection tubes?
Sterilization by means of irradiation may cause cross-linkage or scission of chemical bonds at the molecular level. The amount of scission or cross linkage is dependent upon chemical composition, morphology, and radiation absorption. These effects may increase or decrease over time. Although the effects of radiation on particular types of material may be predicted, they may also depend upon outside stresses placed in the product during manufacturing or storage after process, which can lead to brownish discoloration of the glass.
Therefore, qualification of materials/products at a dose at or above the maximum dose range followed by product functionality at several time frames through out predicted life span of the product is recommended. The results of this testing should be used to establish the maximum dose for routine processing.
Pipettes are sterilized at a 25.0-40.0 kGy range based on an AAMI dose validation study performed by our sterilization vendor. The bioburden test data and the dose calculation from that study determine the dose required.
What are some of the common laboratory uses for blood collection tubes?
Heparin, an anticoagulant, is used in blood collection tubes to reduce the risk of a clot forming in blood in a tube after being collected in preparation for performing some kind of blood test.
Can Kimble Chase glass products be recycled?
Hundreds of blood tests are performed every day in todays modern labs.
In general, there are four main types of blood tests:
- Hematology tests
- Microbiology tests
- Biochemistry tests
- Serology tests
Hematology tests examine the blood to identify:
- The types and numbers of blood cells that are present (e.g., red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets)
- The appearance of the cells, especially their maturity
- The ability for the blood to form a blood clot and the speed at which clotting occurs
Biochemistry tests measure the amounts of normally occurring chemicals and biochemicals in the blood, both individually and in relation to other chemicals. These measurements are compared to normal ranges for that test and are used to determine whether blood biochemicals are in a proper and healthy balance. Biochemicals and other substances that may be studied include the following:
- Recreational drugs
- Cholesterol and other fats
- Blood gases
- Vitamins and minerals
- Prescription drugs
Not only can biochemical tests precisely measure these substances, but they can also be used to indicate how well some organs and organ systems are functioning. For instance, the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream can help to diagnose or monitor diabetes, and indirectly reflect how much insulin is being produced by the pancreas.
Microbiology tests examine blood for the presence of infectious microscopic organisms such as the following:
- Smears, in which a small amount of blood is placed on a glass slide for examination under a microscope. Sometimes the blood smear is stained with special dyes before examination.
- Blood cultures, in which a small amount of blood is placed in a nutrient broth, incubated for days or weeks and then examined for growth of disease-causing bacteria.
Serology tests (tests done on blood serum) can detect the presence of antibodies that are produced by white blood cells to attack microscopic organisms. They are frequently used to detect viral diseases. Most hospital laboratories do not have the equipment or specially trained personnel necessary to isolate the viruses themselves, so serology tests are done instead to identify the infecting organism by studying the antibodies produced against it.
Due to varying recycling capabilities and regulations in regards to the disposal of medical and laboratory glassware, Kimble Chase recommends contacting your local recycling agency or hazardous materials departments for proper disposal instructions concerning used or broken glassware. Borosilicate glass, a specially formulated heat resistant glass used in KIMAX KG-33 and N51A, is not accepted at many recycling centers due to the differing properties to that of normal household glassware. Kimble Chase does offer products manufactured from soda lime or other recyclable glass. For more information, please contact our technical services department at 1-888-546-2531 or mailto:email@example.com